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Acute Renal Failure (ARF) is the sudden loss of kidney function. It occurs when the kidneys stop working over a period of hours, days, or in some cases, weeks. It is also referred clinically as, An acute increase of the serum creatinine level from baseline (i.e., an increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl) and the urine output is less than 400 ml per day (oliguria), but it is not used strictly for ARF.


When ARF occurs, waste products, such as nitrogen or salt, and excess fluids are not removed by the kidneys and builds up in the body, upsetting the body's normal chemical balance. Chemicals and electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, which are needed for normal body functioning, become harmful or sometimes poisonous (toxic) to the body when they reach abnormally high or low levels.


>Acute renal failure can be divided into three categories:

(a). Acute renal failure characterized by diminished renal blood flow (60 to 70 percent of cases).

(b). Acute renal failure, due to damage to the renal tissue (25 to 40 percent of cases).

(c). Acute renal failure because of urinary tract obstruction (5 to 10 percent of cases).

>Renal causes:
1). Acute tubular necrosis - 85% /toxic/septic renal failure
2). Glomerular disease - 5% (primary in systemic diseases)
3). Other diseases of Kidney - 10%.


Symptoms of Acute Renal Failure depend on the cause of the problem. Acute Renal Failure cannot be diagnosed exclusively based on the following symptoms. Symptoms may include:
>Swelling of the hands, face, or feet.
>Decreased urinary output (oliguria).
>Shortness of breath (dyspnea).
>Rapid, irregular heart rate.
>Enlarged or distended neck veins.
Nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. Profound weakness or fatigue. Confusion, agitation, or combative behavior.


Acute Renal Failure is usually diagnosed using blood and urine tests to monitor kidney function. Tests may include blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, complete blood count (CBC), and a urinalysis.

A chemistry screen may be used to look for abnormalities in electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium.


The treatment of Acute Renal Failure depends on the cause and may include:
>Correcting the underlying cause of kidney failure, such as dehydration or medication toxicity.
>Providing supportive care for the kidneys through hem dialysis.
>Preventing other complications, such as infection or fluid or electrolyte imbalances.


.Potassium removal Polysterene
.Sulphonate Resin


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