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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition that often begins at about 40-45 years, due to hormonal changes that result in prostatic enlargment. The word "benign" means that the enlargement is not caused by cancer or infection. The word "hyperplasia" means enlargement.


It is a walnut sized gland that is part of the male reproductive system.


The reasons are not entirely clear but ageing and hormonal changes appear to play an important role.


As the prostate gland increases in size it causes the gland to pinch against the urethra like a clamp on a garden-hose. As a result it can lead to the following problems. It can put pressure on the urethra and slow down or cut off the flow of urine. The bladder wall becomes thicker and irritable leading to contraction of bladder even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination. Eventually, the bladder weakens and loses the ability to empty itself.


>Weak urine stream

>Dribbing after voiding

>Frequent urination, particularly at night (i.e nocturia).

>Feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder.

>Hesitancy - leakage of urine (i.e. overflow incontinence).

>Straining or pushing to begin urination.

>Blood in the urine (i.e. haematuria ) caused by straining.


>Physical examination.
>Preliminary tests.

The following universal symptoms chart helps you to evaluate your symptoms by yourself and if necessary seek a consultation with a Urologist in your area -


>Physical Examination:
A physical examination helps your doctor evaluate your general health. Your doctor will also assess you prostate with a digital rectal examination, performed by inserting a finger into the rectum and feeling the prostate to enable your doctor to detect an enlarged prostate or other abnormalities.

>Laboratory Investigations:
Urine investigations like urine culture to rule out urinary tract infection. PSA (Prostate specific antigen) blood test is used to detect abnormally high levels of a Protein substance in your blood that may indicate prostate cancer.


>>Uroflow :-

It measures the velocity of the flow of urine over time. It tells the doctor how slow or fast the urine is flowing and the extent of the blockage due to the prostate enlargement. It is an objective test of your symptoms. You should try and pass urine in the commode provided with the machine, then the urine spills outside the flow test may need to be repeated.

>>Ultrasound :-

Ultrasound uses sound waves to create a two-dimensional image of your prostate, bladder or kidneys.


There is a option for treatment of BPH ,both medical and surgical, which depend upon the condition of the patient:


To provide relief for your symptoms, medications may be needed to relax the muscles of your prostate to block hormones that cause prostatic growth, or to relax your bladder and improve continence.
[Drugs are given at the end of the topic].


[A]-Trans-urethral resection of prostate (TURP).

[B]- Open prostatectomy.




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