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Surya Sen

Surya Sen or Masterda ( 1894- January 12, 1934 ), was a prominent Bengali Indian freedom fighter and was the chief architect of anti -British freedom movement in Chittagong, Bengal (now in Bangladesh ). His father's name was Ramaniranjan . A resident of Noapara in Chittagong, he was a teacher by profession . He was initiated into revolutionary ideas in 1916 by one of his teachers while he was a student of Intermediate Class in the Chittagong College and joined the renowned anarchist group Anushilan. But when he went to Behrampur College for BA course , came to know about Jugantar and became more inspired with their ideas . On his return to Chittagong in 1918, he organized Jugantar there. Every revolutionary groups were using Indian National Congress as umbrella to work Consequently in 1929 , Surya Sen became the president of the Chittagong district committee of the Indian National Congress . He continued to organize the hardline patriotic organisations and first became a teacher of the National school in Nandankanan and then joined the Umatara school at Chandanpura . Hence, he was known as Mastarda (teacher brother ). By 1923 Surya Sen spread the anarchist organization in different parts of Chittagong district . Aware of the limited equipment and other resources of the freedom fighters, he was convinced of the need for secret guerrilla warfare against the colonial Government. One of his early successful undertakings was a broad day robbery at the treasury office of the Assam- Bengal Railway at Chittagong on December 23 ,1923 . His major success in the anti -British revolutionary violence was the Chittagong Armoury Raid on April 18, 1930 . Subsequent to the raid, he marched to the Jalalabad hills along with his fellow revolutionaries . After the battle with the British troops on April 22 , he escaped from there . Surya Sen, being constantly followed up by the police, had to hide at the house of Sabitri Devi, a widow, near Patiya. A police and military force under Captain Cameron surrounded the house on 13 June 1932 . Cameron was shot dead while ascending the staircase and Surya Sen along with Pritilata Waddedar and Kalpana Dutta escaped to safety. Surya Sen was always in hiding, moving from one place to another. Sometimes he used to take a job as a workman ; sometimes he would take a job as a farmer , or milkman, or priest , houseworker or even as a pious Muslim . This is how he used to avoid being captured .Either because of money, or out of jealousy, or because of both, Netra Sen told the British Government that Surya Sen was at his house. As a result , the police came and captured him on February 16, 1933. This is how India' s supreme hero was arrested. But before Netra Sen was able to get his 10 ,000 - rupee reward he was killed by the revolutionaries . Tarakeswar Dastidar, the new president of the Chittagong Branch Jugantar Party , made a preparation to rescue Surya Sen from the Chittagong Jail . But the plot was unearthed and consequently frustrated. Tarakeswar and Kalpana along with others were arrested. Special tribunals tried Surya Sen, Tarakeswar Dastidar, and Kalpana Datta in 1933 . Surya Sen along with his comrade Tarekeshwar Dastidar was hanged by the British rulers on January 12 , 1934. Before the death sentence Surya Sen was brutally tortured. It was reported that the British executioners broke all his teeth with hammer and plucked all nails and broke all limbs and joints . He was dragged to the rope unconscious. After his death his death body wasn ’t given any funeral. The prison authority, it was found later, put his dead body in a metallic cage and dumped into the bay of Bengal . His last letter to his comrades, written on 11 January, will remain enshrined in history as the most eloquent testimony of the excellence of his manhood .. . "Death is knocking at my door. My mind is flying away towards infinity .. . this is the moment to myself to embrace death as the dearest of friends . In this happy, sacred and crucial moment, what am I leaving for you all? Only one thing , my dream, a golden dream, the dream of a Free India. Dear comrades, march ahead; never retrace your step. Days of servitude are receding. Freedom 's illuminating ray is visible over there Arise and never give way to despair . Success is sure to come ."

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