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Human Rights

Human rights

Human rights are commonly understood as "inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere)and egalitarian (the same for everyone). These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights , in both national and international law . The doctrine of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and regional institutions, in the policies of states and inthe activities of non-governmental organizations, has beena cornerstone of public policy around the world. In The idea of human rights it says: "if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights." Despite this, the strong claims made by the doctrine ofhuman rights continue to provoke considerableskepticism and debatesabout the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day. Indeed, the question of what is meant by a"right" is itself controversial and the subject of continued philosophical debate.
Many of the basic ideas that animated the movement developed inthe aftermath of the Second World War and the atrocities of The Holocaust , culminating in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948.
In 1949, 10 governments - Belgium,Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom - set up the Council of Europe . It paved the way for the introduction of the European Convention onHuman Rights, adopted in 1950 and the establishment of the European Court of Human Rights, to supervise states’ compliance with the convention.
The modern concept of human rights developedduring the early Modern period , alongside the European secularization of Judeo-Christian ethics. The true forerunner of human rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval Natural law tradition that became prominentduring the Enlightenment with such philosophers as John Locke , Francis Hutcheson , and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui , and featured prominently in the political discourse ofthe American Revolution and the French Revolution .

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