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∆░About Himachal Prdesh░∆

Himachal Pradesh
About
Referred to asdev bhoomior "place of God", Himachal Pradesh is bordered by Jammu and Kashmir on the North, Punjab on the West, Uttar Pradesh on the South and Uttaranchal on the East. The word "Hima" means snow when translated to Sanskrit, and the meaning of the term stands out to be an area that sits on the laps of the mountains. Shimla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and the total area of the state is roughly 55000 square km. The state is covered with immense natural beauty and is, undoubtedly, one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. A majority of the area is mountainous, and lofty ranges, deep valleys, swaying waterfalls and lush greenery symbolise the state. The climate varies extremely from one place to the other, providing heavy rainfalls to some area and no rainfall to others. Being high in altitude, snowfall is a common sight in most of the parts of the state. There are 12 districts in the state which are further subdivided into blocks and towns and villages for administrative convenience. Himachal Pradesh is known to be the second least corrupted state in the country. Owing to the huge production of apples, the Himachal Pradesh is known as the State of apples.
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Government and Politics
Proudly, Himachal Pradesh is the second state in India with least corruption and all credit goes to the state government that operates in such an efficient manner. The state is divided into 12 districts, 75 tehsils, 52 subdivisions, 75 blocks and almost more than 20000 villages and 57 towns. Being a post-Independence creation, the legislative assembly of Himachal Pradesh doesn't have any pre-constitution. However, the unicameral legislature of the state has 68 seats with almost 14 house committee at the assembly. For Lok Sabha or the lower house, there are in total 4 constituencies and for Rajya Sabha, or the upper house there are around 3 constituencies. National parties like the Indian National Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party have alternately been able to establish their supremacy over Himachal Pradesh, whereas no third party has ever been able to rise amidst the two. Like all other Indian States, the Chief Minister has the ultimate powers in the state, and controls all the major operations of the government. Currently, Mr. Vibhadra Singh is the CM of the state whereas Smt. Urmila Singh is the current governor of the state. Mr. Tulsi Ram, is currently holding the position of the speaker, which is again a very important position in the government.
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History
Himachal Pradesh has a rich history because it has been inhabited by several clans of people at different ages from the beginning of civilization. The earliest of all were the people from the Indus valley civilization, during the second and third millennium BC, and they came here from gangetic plains only to live life more peacefully. Soon, the Mongolians occupied the region and they were followed by the Aryans. According to the Indian epics, Himachal Pradesh was a conglomeration of several small republics or Janpadas, each constituting a state as well as a cultural unit. Then came the Mughals and kings like Mahmud Ghaznavi, Sikandar lodi, Timur, etc had conquered many places of the state to establish their supremacy.
After their kingdom started declining, the Gorkhas captured the land but ended up losing the territory to the British in the Anglo-Gorkha war. The British were completely smitten by the sheer beauty of the area and continued with their supremacy over the place from 1858 to 1914. After India got independence, 30 states of the area were brought together to form Himachal Pradesh in 1948. When Punjab got geographically reorganized, some parts were included in the latter. In 1971, Himachal Pradesh became a part of the India and emerged as the 18th state of the Indian Union.
Geography
Being situated at the foothills of the Western Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh is located at the higher altitudes around 6500 meters above the sea level. The elevation is from west to the east and from the north to the South. Geographically, the area may be divided into three broad categories: the outer Himalayas (Shivaliks), the inner Himalayas (central zone), and the Greater Himalayas (alpine zone). Wide Valleys, snow clad mountains, exotic lakes and rivers and gushing out streams are the few features that Himachal Pradesh is known for. Around 64% of the area is covered by forests that consist of Moist Deodar Forest, Ban Oak Forest, Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, Alpine Pastures and the Rhododendron Scrub Forests. The climate varies from semi arctic to semi tropical.
Summers stay from April-June with a comfortable climate whereas winters are chilly and sometimes unpleasant due to heavy snowfalls. Rainy season enhances the beauty of the place and continues from July to September. Rivers and streams get refilled and a lustrous beauty of the green vegetation is visible all throughout. Major rivers of the area are the Chandra Bhaga, the Beas, the Chenab, the Sutlej and the Ravi. These rivers flow all throughout the year and are mainly fed by the glaciers of the mountains. Bara Shigri, Bhaga, Chandra are the few glaciers of Himachal Pradesh.


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